Basic Git help
- git help
- git help command
- man gittutorial
- man gitcli
- Git Magic
- Pro Git book
- Git training at Git hub
- integrating a graphical diff tool (meld) with git
- stgit - StGit is a Python application providing similar functionality to Quilt (i.e. pushing/popping patches to/from a stack) on top of Git
- git for SVN users - Crash course on using git if you've used SVN
Download a new repository
For example LLVM:
git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:llvm.git
Git has the ability to multiple different branches both locally and on the server. When you initially clone a repository, you get the master branch from the server. All branches you will use are local to your machine, but can track a branch on the server. To switch from one branch to another, use the command
git checkout working
where working is the branch you're switching to.
Switch to a branch that is on the server that you haven't used
If the branch is on the server, but you haven't checked it out yet, you'll want to check it out as with the same name as the server and have your local branch track the server branch.
git checkout -t working
This will create a local branch called working that will track the server branch. Now to switch between this branch and master you just use the command:
git checkout master
git checkout working
Switch to a new branch that isn't on the server
If you're about to work on something new, but you want the rest of the group to have to merge your new changes, create a new local branch. Later, you can either merge this branch into a server branch or push the branch onto the server. When the branch doesn't exist yet either locally or on the server, execute the command:
git checkout -b Reed
where Reed is the name of the new local branch. It will be branched off of where you were working at the time of the command. To push the branch onto the server:
git push origin Reed
where origin is a remote repository pointing at the server. (origin is the default remote repository when you do a git clone). And, Reed is the name of the branch.
To get all your changes onto the server
git push --all
Track a newly created branch
You've just created a branch that you just pushed to the server. At this point anyone who clones the repository will see the new branch. However, if you try to pull down new changes in your current repository, you'll get a strange error message that starts "You asked me to pull without telling me which branch you want to merge with...". To fix this execute these two commands changing <BRANCH> to the name of your branch:
git config --add branch.<BRANCH>.remote origin git config --add branch.<BRANCH>.merge refs/heads/<BRANCH>
Note that <BRANCH> should be changed three times and the dots (.) and slashes (/) around it are important. After doing this, your git pull should work normally.
To add a new file or commit changes to the repository
git add file git commit
Rename a branch
If you have a branch you're currently working on that has the wrong name, use the following command to change it's name:
git branch -m oldbranch newbranch
Delete a branch
If you have a branch you're done with and you want to delete locally and on the server, use the following command to delete in your local repository:
git branch -d branchname
If you get an error, then you probably hadn't used the branch locally in your repository. To delete it on the server use the command:
git push origin --delete branchname
Fixing the "error: failed to push some refs to" problem
The following set of commands will fix the "error: failed to push some refs to" that you get when you do a git push. It will fix the problem and put you back in the same state you were in when you started. So, the next git pull should not give you this error. It assumes you're working with files that aren't part of the repository and other that are part of the repository, but aren't checked in.
- git status
Note the state and branch you're in before this starts. You may have untracked or modified files which this assumes you'll want back.
- git add .
Add all the files to your repository. This will allow you to save your untracked or modified files. When you're done, the untracked and modified files will still be untracked or modified.
- git stash
This saves your state and returns the current branch back to HEAD. Since you added the untracked and modified files to the repository, these will be stored in the stash.
- git checkout master
Master is the branch that is not getting a fast forward merge. This will switch you to that branch.
- git pull
This will merge your local master with what is on the server. It will generate a lot of output when it fast forward merges the branch. It shouldn't have any conflicts unless you're checking files into the master branch. At this point, the error is fixed. But, you still need to get back to where you were.
- git checkout assembler
This will switch you back to the branch you were on. It assumes you were on the assembler branch. The initial git status command will have told you what branch you were on. If it wasn't assembler, then change this command to the branch you were on.
- git stash pop
This will restore any edited or untracked files that you had in your directory before you started. This is the reverse of the git stash command above.
- git reset HEAD
This will stop tracking any files that you got tracked from the earlier git add command. You should now be back to where you were when this started. Doing a git push will no longer generate the error.
- git status
This should show the same state you were in when you ran the git status command. You'll be in the same branch. You'll have the same set of untracked files. You'll have the same set of edited files.
Block commits to master branch
Several of the GIT repositories on the dmz-portal machine regularly sync their master branch with another remote upstream repository. Commits to this branch can cause a lot of problems for the rest of the team. The following script if added to your repository's .git/hooks/ directory and called pre-commit hook will stop you from committing changes to the master branch. Whenever you clone one of these repositories, copy this script into .git/hooks/ and call it pre-commit.
#!/bin/bash # # An example hook script to verify what is about to be committed. # Called by git-commit with no arguments. The hook should # exit with non-zero status after issuing an appropriate message if # it wants to stop the commit. # # To enable this hook, rename this file to "pre-commit". if git-rev-parse --verify HEAD >/dev/null 2>&1 then against=HEAD else # Initial commit: diff against an empty tree object against=4b825dc642cb6eb9a060e54bf8d69288fbee4904 fi # If you want to allow non-ascii filenames set this variable to true. allownonascii=$(git config hooks.allownonascii) # Cross platform projects tend to avoid non-ascii filenames; prevent # them from being added to the repository. We exploit the fact that the # printable range starts at the space character and ends with tilde. if [ "$allownonascii" != "true" ] && # Note that the use of brackets around a tr range is ok here, (it's # even required, for portability to Solaris 10's /usr/bin/tr), since # the square bracket bytes happen to fall in the designated range. test "$(git diff --cached --name-only --diff-filter=A -z $against | LC_ALL=C tr -d '[ -~]\0')" then echo "Error: Attempt to add a non-ascii file name." echo echo "This can cause problems if you want to work" echo "with people on other platforms." echo echo "To be portable it is advisable to rename the file ..." echo echo "If you know what you are doing you can disable this" echo "check using:" echo echo " git config hooks.allownonascii true" echo exit 1 fi branchname=`git branch | grep '^*' | cut -d' ' -f2` if [ "$branchname" == "master" ]; then echo "cannot commit to master branch." exit 1 fi exec git diff-index --check --cached $against --